6 things Henri Cartier-Bresson can teach you about photography
© Henri Cartier-Bresson
“To take a photograph is to align the head, the eye and the heart. It’s a way of life. ” Henri Cartier-Bresson
I hope you are all doing well and you are doing some great things with your weekend. As you read this I’m off camping with my daughter for the first time. Fun!
Today I am continuing my occasional series about photographers that I love. First I did Ernst Haas (my all time favourite photographer and king, in my view, of communicating feeling with colour), and then Elliot Erwitt (master of seeing poignant and amusing moments of life.)
I love looking in detail at another photographer’s work, because to immerse yourself in that wonderful space of someone else’s creativity and seeing what their ideas spark in you, what excites you, what makes you sit up and think – wow, that’s really cool – that’s all great fuel for your own photography.
My subject today is Henri Cartier-Bresson. Born in 1908 he was initially drawn to painting before discovering photography at the age of 24 (and the Leica camera!). After a spectacular career he started to move away from photography at the age of 60 and spent the rest of his long life focused more on drawing and painting. Although I can’t ever imagine giving up on photography I really admire it when people take big leaps in their creativity like this. I mean he was a world famous photographer, he could have coasted on that for the next thirty years, but instead he was drawn back to his first love. I aim to be that fearless with my decisions in life. To just go for what moves me, and not what makes most practical sense.
What I love about Cartier-Bresson’s photography is his steadied and almost scientific approach to composition – he had a great feel for shape and form and putting that together into compelling compositions.
He is very much known for his street photography which, as a genre, I often find comes across in a cold, slightly sterile feeling. But I think Cartier-Bresson’s photographs, and his street photography, have a real warmth combined with a concern for humanity.
So here are some things Henri Cartier-Bresson can teach you about photography.
You know what all amazing photographers have? Patience. You know what almost every person who comes on my workshops needs more of? Patience.
You have to accept that if you want to be a great photographer (or even almost-great. Or anywhere above average) you need the ability to not rush the moment. You need to enter into the moment that you are in, be totally present and to let it just run as it sees fit. To observe the world around you with no expectation, to drift through the place you are in, and to completely resist the temptation to keep moving on.
This photo above to me communicates utter patience. He must have seen this unusual combination of lines and thought, interesting. Then maybe his intuition or sixth sense knew that someone was going to come around that corner. Or perhaps he just waited to see what would happen.
“One minute of patience, ten years of peace.” Greek proverb
If there is one thing I would like you to take away from this post that will make your photography instantly better, it is to take twice the amount of time looking than you usually do. To fight your mind and your body in the urge to keep moving on. When you find a scene that interests you, stay put. Explore it, probe it, wait for things to happen. And in general, walk twice as slowly, stay out taking photos for twice as long.
But as Joyce Meyer says – “Patience is not just about waiting for something… it’s about how you wait, or your attitude while waiting.”
Be patient in your patience 🙂
2) Find the perfect expression of your subject
Cartier-Bresson is most famous for coming up with the term the decisive moment. (The term actually came from the English title of his book. The book opens with the quote from Cardinal de Retz, who wrote in the 17th century, “There is nothing in this world that does not have a decisive moment and the masterpiece of good ruling is to know and seize this moment.”)
There are all kinds of interpretations of the decisive moment, I like this one from a great article about The Decisive Moment and the Brain:
“The decisive moment refers to capturing an event that is ephemeral and spontaneous, where the image represents the essence of the event itself.”
When they talk about the decisive moment it could come across as being that you wait for that perfect moment, then you take a photo, then you move on. But actually Cartier-Bresson worked the scene like most of the rest of us, taking lots of photos. And from this he would pick a photo that most accurately captured the essence of the situation – that gave the viewer the most information and feeling about the subject.
I love this photo, above, because to me it is the ultimate expression of a what the child is feeling. It is exactly what the decisive moment means to me. It speaks specifically of this event, the child walking proudly with his bottles of wine, but it also speaks of all moments when we have seen a child be proud. It feels so true because it connects us to so many other moments in life that we have witnessed.
Photographing children is an extremely rewarding experience. Yes, they will probably not do what you say, but they will reveal themselves, their feelings bursting through, in a way that is so much more honest and free than their older counterparts (i.e. us grown ups!)
3) Use your intuition
“Your eye must see a composition or an expression that life itself offers you, and you must know with intuition when to click the camera.” Cartier-Bresson
This to me again speaks of shutting off your chatty, worky, to-do mind and trying to just enter into the moment. There is a lot that we intuit that we probably don’t acknowledge, so occupied are we at listening to our endless thoughts. I feel like it’s like you need to get out of your mind and into your body – and see what it is noticing about where you are at, ignoring that busy mind of yours.
“Photography is not documentary, but intuition, a poetic experience. It’s drowning yourself, dissolving yourself, and then sniff, sniff, sniff – being sensitive to coincidence. You can’t go looking for it; you can’t want it, or you won’t get it. First you must lose yourself. Then it happens.” Cartier-Bresson
I like that, you must lose yourself. It’s exactly what I feel when I am in the ‘zone’ or the ‘creative flow state’. I am losing track of space and time, and just completely immersed in my subject. It doesn’t happen every time I shoot, but I know that when it happens I am getting something very special.
4) The beauty of shape and form
Cartier-Bresson was very into lines, shapes, organising and balancing the geometry of the world.
“In order to “give a meaning” to the world, one has to feel oneself involved in what one frames through the viewfinder. This attitude requires concentration, a discipline of mind, sensitivity, and a sense of geometry– it is by great economy of means that one arrives at simplicity of expression. One must always take photographs with the greatest respect for the subject and for oneself.” Cartier-Bresson
This is an awesome photograph, above. I like the contrast between the energy of the boys, the solidity of the wall and the little box windows.
© Henri Cartier-Bresson
This photo is a perfect union of timing and shapes. I love that it challenges the eye to see something that you would usually see, in a very different way. The challenge of focusing on form and elements is to make them say something or mean something. And I like how the tip of the boat isn’t centered. Play with your elements so they are both pleasing to the eye and have a little something unique to portray.
This is one of Cartier-Bresson’s most famous photos – and ironically it is one of only a couple that he allowed to be cropped. He was fiercely anti darkroom interference, and would insist that his photos be published in full. But for this photo he was standing behind a fence. (You can see the original photo here.)
I like what the New York Times said about this photo, and how it was his focus on detail that made it such a compelling image:
“Cartier-Bresson brings to his image layer on layer of fresh and uncanny detail: the figure of a leaping dancer on a pair of posters on a wall behind the man mirrors him and his reflection in the water; the rippling circles made by the ladder echo circular bands of discarded metal debris; another poster, advertising a performer named Railowsky, puns with the railway station and the ladder, which, flat, resembles a railroad track.”
5) Take the time to reveal your subject
“The most difficult thing for me is a portrait. You have to try and put your camera between the skin of a person and his shirt.” Cartier-Bresson
This for me perfectly captures what you need to be doing when taking someone’s photo. And this isn’t easy! Taking a portrait for me is about your subject revealing something about themselves or their experience. It could be through their movement, the expression within their eyes or face – but it has to tell you something about the person or the situation they are in.
To me this isn’t a particularly interesting photo, except for the intensity of the man’s face, the feeling he communicates of desperation or fear is seeping out of the photo. There are so many stories that spring to mind about this man and his little girl.
Almost everyone (with the exception of young children) have a veneer that they present to the world, and this veneer will harden when you put a camera up in front of them. People are programmed to want to project a certain image – but that image is boring to photograph most of the time.
So what this comes down to again is time. Spending time with your subject or watching your subject so that they start to relax and reveal something about themselves. You want them to go from feeling consciously looked at, to feeling unconsciously looked at. Because that veneer is hard to maintain, and people will forget about a camera after a while. So, in order to get to that point where people are losing their guard and starting to reveal something interesting about themselves you need to push through the discomfort you are likely to experience whilst waiting. It’s weirdly self conscious pointing a camera at someone you aren’t acquainted with for long periods of time. So again, be patient with yourself and move through the discomfort.
It could be that you are just clicking away, having the subject get used to you. Gradually they will.
Or talk to them – or watch them if you are shooting them unawares. Wait for those fluttering changes in their face, their eyes. See what they do with their hands, where their eyes turn when their preoccupations come back to occupy their minds.
But then sometimes it’s more interesting to see not what I think of people, or my view – but what they think of themselves and of the world. I like this photo of Albert Camus (who is probably my favourite French writer. Deceptively simple writing, I found his book The Outsider incredibly moving). I imagine that Camus was quite happy with how cool he looked in this photo (this is a pretty funny but interesting New Yorker article about Camus and why him being good looking was relevant to who he was:)). This was probably an image of himself he was happy to promote.
Camus also seems to have had the sensibility of a photographer:
“Life is short, and it is sinful to waste one’s time. They say I’m active. But being active is still wasting one’s time, if in doing one loses oneself. Today is a resting time, and my heart goes off in search of itself. If an anguish still clutches me, it’s when I feel this impalpable moment slip through my fingers like quicksilver… At the moment, my whole kingdom is of this world. This sun and these shadows, this warmth and this cold rising from the depths of the air.”
For me one of the best in the field of street/stranger portraits is Diane Arbus (as opposed to studio portraits, for that I think Annie Leibovitz is incredable). There is an exhibit of Arbus’s early work in New York coming up, with some previously unpublished work. Although in this article I didn’t love any of the photos from this exhibit as much as her later work, it’s interesting to see people’s early work and see their progress. It gives me inspiration to keep going when I hit a hard day.
6) Don’t be nostalgic about your photos
“Photographers deal in things which are continually vanishing and when they have vanished there is no contrivance on earth which can make them come back again.” Cartier-Bresson
I think a lot of us photographers worry that we aren’t ever going to take a truly original photo. When I visit to new cities I certainly worry about that. I mean there are photographers everywhere! (This writer worked out that “Every two minutes, humans take more photos than ever existed in total 150 years ago.”)
I think there is a little bit of nostalgia in wanting to take photos. Life is such a flowing, never stopping act, that to take a photo and halt that process of always changing, always moving on, is to gain a small window of time to stop and reflect. To have an opportunity to stop and breathe. Photography is a weird dichotomy of being completely present and living in a very rich connected way, and this constant reflecting back on the past. On past moments that you have captured. But Cartier-Bresson was someone who constantly pushed forward and gave very little thought to his earlier photos.
“The creative act lasts but a brief moment, a lightning instant of give-and-take, just long enough for you to level the camera and to trap the fleeting prey in your little box.”
I hope you are inspired to explore his work more. A good place to start is the Henri Cartier-Bresson Foundation, set up with his wife Martine Franck (a great photographer in her own right), and his daughter. And as he was one of the co-founders of Magnum.
And, as always, we love hearing what you think, so if you’ve got some thoughts on Cartier-Bresson please comment here. And please share with anyone who you think would enjoy this post, it means a lot, thanks!
Anthony and Diana
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